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让个人和企业在全球范围内的流动变得简单高效

一家经数十年经验沉淀的顶级移民和商务律师事务所
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  • 移民
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专业知识值得信赖

无论您是计划雇佣外国劳工的雇主,还是正在探索新机会的企业家,抑或是在美国寻求工作机会或打算定居的个人,Origin Law律师事务所都可以帮助您做出正确的决定。

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    • 临时工作签证
    • 通过就业获得永久居留权
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    • 高技能人士的移民解决方案
    • 家庭成员的永久居留权
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本事务所提供的法律服务在帮助外国公司,企业家和管理人员在美国建立,发展和管理商务运营方面具有得天独厚的优势。

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    • 高性价比的综合性法律顾问服务支持
About company
本事务所专注于为外籍人士和企业提供更多忠诚可靠且经验丰富的法律代表

凭借数十年如一日地为世界各地客户提供优质法律服务的经验,我们能够敏锐地捕捉到外籍人士所面对的与移民美国和商务运营相关的一系列挑战。在克服这些挑战时,选择业务能力卓著的法律代表尤为重要。在Origin Law,我们提供久经时间考验的专业技能和快速响应、方便快捷以及可以预见的高性价比的服务流程。

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The bill, known as the U.S. Citizenship Act of 2021, provides undocumented individuals with an eight-year path to U.S. Citizenship. Undocumented individuals physically present in the United States on or before January 1, 2021, would be eligible for Temporary Protected Status (TPS). After five years, if they pass criminal and national security background checks and pay their taxes, they may apply for their green cards. Three years after receiving their green cards, and after passing additional background checks and demonstrating adequate knowledge of English and U.S. civics, they would be eligible for U.S. citizenship.

Undocumented farmworkers who worked in agriculture for at least 100 days in the last five years will be able to immediately apply for green cards. After three years in green card statusy, they would be able to apply for U.S. citizenship.

This bill, if passed, would grant an estimated 11 million undocumented individuals and 1 million farmworkers a streamlined path to green card status and U.S. citizenship.

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2021年1月7日,美国公民及移民服务局(USCIS)发布了有关对2021年新提交的H-1B申请实施限额选择程序的最终规则。根据新程序规则,薪资水平越高,申请被选定的优先级就越高。提供“IV级”薪资的申请将被赋予最高的优先级,接下来是III级薪资,II级薪资和I级薪资,依次类推。随机选择将适用于提供最低薪资水平的申请,以补缺任意剩余签证数量。

最终规则将于2021年3月9日开始实施,这将使得该规则适用于FY 2021 H-1B抽签。鉴于新的选择程序与国会授权令之间存在冲突,预计此规则想要最终落地需要经过联邦法院的裁断。此最终规则在生效之前还有可能被拜登政府延期或取消。

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2020年12月16日,第九巡回上诉法院就Innova Solutions, Inc. v. Baran案作出裁决,认为劳工统计局的“职业前景手册”(OOH)中对于计算机程序设计员所使用的语言符合H-1B“专业性职位”的定义。OOH发布了有关很多职位及其准入要求的信息。USCIS通常会依据OOH的信息来评估某特定职位是否符合“专业性职位”的资格要求。 

法律条文中将“专业性职位”定义成“通常”需要学士学位。尽管OOH的表述是“大多数”计算机程序设计员都有学士学位,但是USCIS据此描述拒签了一位计算程序设计员,认为他不符合“专业性职位”的要求。USCIS认为“通常”,“大多数”,和“典型”这些词之间没有区别,法院对此并不认可。

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联邦法院最近取消了由美国国土安全部和美国劳工部(DOL)颁布的临时最终规则。

2020年10月,DHS和DOL发布了将实质改变H-1B计划的最终规则。DHS关于“加强H-1B非移民签证类别计划”的临时最终规则修订了专业性职位,雇主-雇员关系的定义,并将在第三方工作场所工作的H-1B核准的时间仅限定为一年。DOL发布的有关“加强对美国外籍人员临时和永久就业薪酬保护”的临时最终规则大幅上调了美国雇主必须支付给H-1B工人的薪资。2020年12月1日,美国加利福尼亚北区地方法院推翻了这些违反行政程序法(APA)的规则,要求其必须经过公众通知和意见征询期才能最终定案。

2020年12月2日,DHS还发布了一条拟议规则,试图通过为更高薪资职位提供优惠待遇的系统来替代当前的H-1B选择程序。此条拟议规则根据APA的规定预期将面临类似的挑战。

拜登政府不反对建立在薪资基础上的H-1B选择程序。

根据拜登在他的网站上强调的政策要点显示,现任政府认为“只要求入门级薪资和技能水平而将高技术工人排挤在外的移民体系将威胁到美国的创新能力和竞争力”。政府将“携手国会首先对临时签证进行改革,建立以薪资为基础的分配程序,落实实施机制,确保与劳动力市场保持一致,而不是用于逐渐削减工资。”拜登强调与国会合作的言论反映出政府将争取通过合法的程序来推动改革。如果政府仍处于分裂状态的话,此项议题将面临严峻挑战。尽管考虑到了转向薪资型分配程序的可能性,但是拜登政府同时也表达了自己对于增加每年签发的可用H-1B签证总数量的支持。

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当选总统的乔.拜登将提名亚历杭德罗·马约克斯来担任美国国土安全部(DHS)部长一职,DHS是负责监管美国公民及移民服务局(USCIS)的机构。奥巴马在任时,马约克斯担任的是USCIS局长兼DHS副部长。如果得到参议院的确认,马约克斯将成为出任此职位的首位拉美移民。

马约克斯出生于古巴的哈瓦那,后作为政治难民与家人一起逃离母国。他因在奥巴马任上制定和实施了“童年入境者暂缓遣返计划(DACA)”而闻名。DACA计划允许童年非法入境美国的部分移民继续留在美国并可获得工作授权。特朗普政府在2017年终止了DACA计划,但此命令随后被美国最高法院推翻。

2015年,马约克斯由于其对EB-5投资人签证计划的管理施加影响而受到检察长的调查。EB-5计划为那些在高失业率地区或乡郊地区投资$500,000并同时至少为美国工人创造10个就业机会的外籍投资人提供绿卡。投资人的资金通常被汇集在一起,用于提供给大型开发项目的利益相关者作为其替代性的融资手段。

根据检察长的报告,马约克斯可能应某些利益相关者的请求私自干预了EB-5申请程序的裁决。其中一位利益相关者是当时的国务卿希拉里·克林顿的兄弟托尼·罗德姆。·罗德姆管理的墨西哥湾沿岸基金管理公司向由美国前弗吉尼亚州州长特里.麦考利夫作为共同创始人的电动汽车制造商GreenTech Automotive Inc.提供EB-5融资

尽管存在争议,但马约克斯被提名对于移民拥护者而言仍然是可喜的事实。拜登提名这样一位具有丰富移民专业知识的官员担任此职进一步突显了政府对于移民改革的关注。但是,在政府可能发生分裂的情况下,任何全面的移民改革方案的通过对于新政府而言都将面临巨大的挑战。

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对于持有条约国和非条约国双重国籍的个人,其在入境之时填报的国籍将决定是否有可能改为E-2身份。举例来说,如果某人以中国大陆国籍持B1/B2签证入境美国,那么此人无法申请将身份更改为E-2,即便此时证明自己同时还持有格林纳达的国籍。

“据此发现,对于拥有双重国籍的外籍非移民而言,必须考虑其在入境美国时所主张或确立的国籍…以此作为其在美国临时居留期间的唯一有效国籍。””

Matter of Ognibene, 18 I&N Dec. 425 (Reg’l Comm’r 1983).

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Day Care Facility

A developer in the United States wish to build and operate a day care facility in Edgewater, New Jersey. The project has a total cost of $7.5 million, which shall be applied towards land acquisition and construction. Once completed, the day-care facility aims to employ 40 full-time workers. On that basis, the project would be able to support a total of four EB-5 investors.

The developer conducts an analysis of the location of the project and finds that it qualifies as a Target Employment Area. This means the EB-5 investors can now invest based on the minimum $900,000. The total amount raised from the EB-5 investors is $3,600,000. Therefore, the developer can finance up to $3,600,000 of the $7.5 million with EB-5 capital.

The individual investors evaluate the project business plan, financials, and terms of the offering. Upon their satisfaction, they execute the project’s subscription and operating agreements, and transfer the investment amount to an escrow account set up for the investment. The investor prepares the I-526 with the attorney and submits the filing. Within 2 weeks, the USCIS issues a receipt notice acknowledging that the I-526 petition has been received. The notice is provided to the escrow agent, and the funds are released to the EB-5 project.

The I-526 is approved after a period of 18 months adjudication by USCIS. With the approval notice, the investor submits for consular processing for the family. Upon completing the consular process, the investor and the family enters the United States as conditional permanent residents.

After two years of obtaining conditional permanent residence, the investor submits the I-829 to remove the conditions. The I-829 properly documents that the project was completed according to plan and a total of 45 full-time U.S. workers were hired and are still employed. Based on that finding, the investor obtains final permanent residence. The project, due to having operated successfully, can now return the investor’s initial investment of $900,000 from its cash reserve along with any accumulated gains attributable to the investor.

The Multi-Family Development

A national development company wish to construct a mixed-use residential high-rise and retail in downtown, New York City. The total project cost is estimated at $100 million; of which, $75 million constitutes hard construction expenditures. Since this is a pure real estate development, there is little to no direct jobs after the completion of the construction. In order to secure EB-5 financing, the developer obtains a sponsorship by a local Regional Center. With the help of the Regional Center, the project can estimate an Indirect Job count through an econometric model. Based on the hard construction costs, and the period of construction, the econometric model indicates at least 750 jobs would be created in the region as a result of the new project. Furthermore, it is determined that the project is located in a Target Employment Area (as designated by the State of New York). As a result, the developer can raise up to 75 investors with $900,000 per investment.

Similar to the example above, the investor (having reviewed the project documents) invests the $900,000 into an escrow account of the project. Those funds are distributed to the project upon receiving a notice from USCIS that the I-526 has been filed. Upon approval of the I-526, the investor undergoes consular processing or adjustment of status to obtain the conditional Green Card.

Two years after obtaining the conditional Green Card, the investor applies for the I-829. At this point, instead of showing individual jobs were created and sustained the investor just needs to show that project was successfully constructed in accordance to plan and budget. Based on that finding, the investor would be able to obtain an approval of the I-829 and obtain the final Green Card. At that point, the investor would be eligible to receive a return of the initial $900,000 investment in addition to any accumulated gains attributable to the investor.

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To qualify for the EB-5 Green Card, the foreign national must invest a minimum of $900,000 or $1,800,000 USD in a for-profit business. There is no restriction on the type of business so long as it can generate at least 10 full-time jobs for U.S. workers. By meeting these qualifications, Green Cards can be obtained for the investor, his or her spouse, and any unmarried children under the age of 21.

There are two important variations that determine the minimum investment amount and the process of job creation. Whether the minimum investment is $900,000 or $1,800,000 depends on the business or project’s location. If it is located in a designated area called a “Target Employment Area” (“TEA”) then the lower investment amount of $900,000 can qualify. If it is not, then the minimum investment must be $1,800,000. Under the current regulatory standards, it is important to verify the TEA eligibility prior to making the investment.

There are also two variations for calculating job creation. The first is known as the “Direct Job”. This means counting individual human workers who work at least 35 hours per week. If the EB-5 investment relies only on Direct Job-creation, then each investor must generate and maintain at least 10 jobs for individual U.S. workers. In order to improve the EB-5 capacity for project finance, Congress implement a “test” program involve the establishment of “Regional Centers”. These Regional Centers are designated by the U.S. government to oversee qualified EB-5 projects and pool investments from foreign investors.

The investments pooled by Regional Centers are not required to rely on Direct Job-creation. This means each investor does not have to establish the hiring of 10 individual U.S. workers. Instead, they can meet the job creation requirement through “Indirect Jobs”. These jobs are determined through econometric modeling based on certain inputs involving expenditures of the project or business. In other words, it is an estimate of the economic impact of a project on a region.

A well-managed Regional Center can be beneficial to both the investor and the project owner. From the investor’s perspective, the Regional Center acts as a business or investment manager. They are responsible for the day-to-day decision making and ensuring that the project satisfies requirement for EB-5. This allows the investor to take on a more passive role similar to that of a limited partner. For the project owner, they can raise more funds through a regional center because they are no longer restricted to only Direct-Job creation.

The concepts within this section will be further illustrated in subsequent sections. For now, the key points to keep in mind are:

  • Minimum Investment Amount: $900,000 or $1,800,000 depending on whether the investment is made in a Target Employment Area (or TEA).
  • Job Creation: The Investment must create at least 10 full-time jobs for U.S. workers. The jobs can be created through direct employment of individual workers or through an economic formula that estimated indirect impact of a project or business on a region’s economy.
  • Indirect Job Creation: Regional Centers investments can utilize Indirect Job Creation which can help greatly reduce the work required of investors and can significantly increase the amount that can be raised for projects.

EB-5 Application Process

There are three key steps to the EB-5 petition process. The first, is the Petition “I-526”, which is known as the Immigrant Petition for Alien Entrepreneur. This petition documents that the project qualifies for EB-5 and that the investor’s funds are derived from a lawful source. In other words, it needs to show that the EB-5 project or business can generate at least 10 full-time jobs for U.S. workers, and it also needs provide evidence of how the investor earned the $900,000 or $1,800,000 used for the investment.

Once the I-526 is approved, the investor and immediate family members can apply for the Green Card. If the investor and family are in the United States, this process can be done through an adjustment of status. If they are overseas, this would be processed through a designated U.S. consulate. The family members that can be included are the spouse and any unmarried children under the age of 21.

Often, investors wish to obtain Green Cards for their children and not necessarily for themselves. In these cases, it is important to consider the age of the children at the time the I-526 is filed. This is because the processing time for the I-526 can take some time and the age of the children need to be under 21 at the time the I-526 is approved. Therefore, if a child is near age 21 at the time the I-526 is being filed and the parents have no immediate need or desire to come to the United States, then it may be more prudent to make the child the primary applicant on the petition.

After the investor (and or family) completes adjustment of status or consular processing, he or she would obtain a conditional permanent residence status (or “Conditional Green Card”). The Conditional Green Card is same as a normal Green Card with the exception of one requirement: the investor must maintain the investment and job creation for a period of two years. Near the end of that two-year period, the investor needs to do an additional filing to remove the condition and obtain the final Green Card.

The final filing to remove the conditions is known as the I-829 (or the “Petition by Entrepreneur to Remove Conditions on Permanent Resident Status”). The primary component of this petition involves documenting that the required jobs were created by the investor. For a Direct Job-creation project, the investor must show that the employment of at least 10 U.S. workers has been sustained. For projects relying on Indirect Job-creation, the investor would need to show that the project has been completed in accordance with the estimated expenditures. (In other words, the project spent the money in the region like it said it would.) With the approval of the I-829, the investor (and or family) would become permanent residents (Green Card holders) in the United States. Furthermore, the investment can be returned by the project to the investor.

It is important to note the that the complete timeframe of the EB-5 will differ depending on the processing time of the USCIS and the country of birth of the investor.

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WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 899 [post_author] => 1 [post_date] => 2020-04-05 10:00:00 [post_date_gmt] => 2020-04-05 07:00:00 [post_content] =>

2020年3月31日,美国公民及移民服务局(USCIS)更改了I-526申请的处理方法,从先进先出法(FIFO)调整为基于签证可用性方法。根据先进先出法,EB-5申请按接收的先后顺序予以审核。建立在签证可用性上的新方法将按签证可用的顺序对EB-5申请进行排队。这意味着来自无签证滞压国家的投资人的EB-5申请将得到更加快速的审核。

根据USCIS,此项改变的目的是让来自传统上代表名额不足国家的投资人更容易获得EB-5签证。根据之前的方法,假设来自中国(有签证滞压的国家)的某投资人的优先日期是2020年3月1日,那么即使EB-5申请获得核准,他也无法收到签证,因为签证优先日期尚未变成当前状态。而来自乌拉圭(无签证滞压的国家)的某投资人,假设其优先日期也是2020年3月1日,那么他在EB-5申请获得核准之时可以立即获得签证。根据新的签证可用性方法,乌拉圭投资人的申请将首先得到审核,而中国投资人的申请在优先日期接近当前状态时也会得到审核。

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F-1学生并未被禁止投资或拥有企业股权。但是,拥有F-1身份的学生在未经授权的情况下不得积极参与企业的管理。这是因为管理自己拥有的企业也被视为是一种就业,而在美国就业是需要经过授权的。

F-1学生想要运营自己的企业可选择在其完成学业后的实习期(OPT)内为之。此类学生需要证明他或她将可以进行全职工作并且所从事的业务工作与该学生的学位课程有关。但是,其中的问题在于OPT期限最多不超过12个月。

想要在OPT期限之外继续自我创业变得较为复杂。尽管获得STEM学位的学生可以申请将OPT延期24个月,但是自我创业将变得更加困难。尽管并未明令禁止,但是STEM OPT期间的就业需要真实的雇主-雇员关系。此种关系通常难以证明,因为学生在雇主中拥有股权。通过F-1学生所有的企业申请H-1B赞助之所以也很困难,原因也在于此。

真实的雇主-雇员关系需要实施对雇佣控制的独立授权。这意味着雇佣,解聘,管理,和控制工作的权利是属于公司的,而非学生-所有权人。欲证明此种关系,需提供与雇佣条款,组织机构,和企业治理相关的证据。美国公民及移民服务局(USCIS)对于确认此种关系是否存在拥有酌情裁量权,申请人所提供的任何证据都将受到严格的审查。

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